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  • Forum | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Chcete-li vidět, jak to funguje, přejděte na zveřejněný web. Kategorie Všechny příspěvky Mé příspěvky Forum Welcome! Have a look around and join the discussions. Vytvořit nový příspěvek General Discussion Sledovat Zobrazení Příspěvky 177 Share stories, ideas, pictures and more! Questions & Answers Sledovat Zobrazení Příspěvky 0 Get answers and share knowledge. Nové příspěvky Игровые автоматы гном 5000 1h Dbol t nation, zphc anavar General Discussion 👉 Dbol t nation, zphc anavar - Buy anabolic steroids online Dbol t nation D-Bal is thought for highly powerful nitrogen retention that creates an closing anabolic nation for high-quality muscle growthin any athlete. What are the benefits of the "Lagorn" line? The benefits of "Lagorn" come from the fact that we have the absolute best selection of high-quality creatine and protein powders available, anabolic steroids for sale bitcoin. 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The D-Bal line was created by a group of bodybuilders that are dedicated to putting you in the best possible shape by providing you with a completely customized "Lagorn" lineup of supplements, what kind of sarms are there. This is one of the largest "Lagorn" lineups on the market, with the addition of D-Amino, D-Glucosamine and the "Lagorn" "Lagorn" Protein Powder blend (in addition to our other popular supplements) What are the benefits of the "D-Bal" line, dbol t nation? The best possible nutrition and supplement blend for training, building strength, and building lean muscle mass Zphc anavar Anavar cycle duration depends on the results you are acquiring, for example, the 6-week cycle of Anavar is ideal for those candidates who are new in the bodybuilding field. These guys are so strong now but there is still room to grow! If you're already an athlete that needs to work on strength, the Anavar cycle is the best cycle for those, zphc anavar. The 6-week cycle is perfect for those who are serious about training, for example, the Anavar cycle is perfect for those already experienced with bodybuilding. We are happy to have the chance to introduce the 7-week cycled Anavar, crazybulk results. We think that everybody has a right to the training that is best for them. If they train with intensity enough, they will grow in strength and muscle mass with Anavar cycle. Anavar Cycle vs Anavar Cycle vs 9-Week Cycle The difference between the 7-week cycle and 9-Week cycle is really one of frequency, zphc anavar. The 7-week cycle is 8 weeks long and there are no additional weeks of rest between the first and second weeks. If you do a 7-week cycle you will be able to reach a strong and healthy bodybuilding condition for about 2 months, with a week of training. But if you do 9-Week cycle you will reach a strong and healthy body and will be able to achieve a 9-Week cycle almost overnight, steroid cycle lower blood pressure. Both Anavar cycles will be a 7-week cycle with minimal additional rest between the first and the second weeks. So, the differences in the two models are: 7-week cycle: The Anavar Cycle consists of Anavar cycle for beginners and Anavar cycle for intermediate competitors, the weight will vary from 140-170 in the beginning to a low of 100-120 in the Intermediate and low of 85-90 in the Beginner, ligandrol flashback. The weight will be increased after 2-3 weeks due to body growth, hgh supplement growth factor 9. It will then be adjusted so that a stronger bodybuilder can still reach a bodybuilding condition at the intermediate stage. It is advised to stay for about 6 weeks until the Anavar cycle is completed. This cycle is perfect for those that want to get their strength and body and who aren't ready to take on the challenge of bodybuilding yet, stanozolol gynecomastia. The Anavar Cycle consists of Anavar cycle for beginners and Anavar cycle for intermediate competitors, the weight will vary from 140-170 in the beginning to a low of 100-120 in the Intermediate and low of 85-90 in the Beginner. The weight will be increased after 2-3 weeks due to body growth, steroids year round cycle. Winstrol steroids is a pale yellow liquid, and it may be used alone or with other medicationsand may not cause a strong reaction. To make the skin more attractive, wash or rub your skin daily with water, or let it hang out in a clean container away from direct sunlight. Some people may want to use skin care formulations or products containing the sunscreen compound. Apply an appropriate amount to the affected area before going to bed and again during the day. If sunscreens and skin care products cause irritation, discontinue the use of those products and seek medical attention. It is possible, though not recommended, that sunscreens and topical solutions (e.g., creams, gels, powders, lotions, and emollients of any kind) can cause eye irritation. When combined with other medications, certain sunscreens and skin care products can cause drug interactions. If you have specific questions, contact your doctor or pharmacist. See your doctor for advice. What should I remember about using Retin-A and retinoic acid as creams? Always begin with a topical product and keep using it, or switch to a different product if your skin fails to recover from the first dose. For best results, follow the directions on the label. However, if your skin does not seem to show signs of irritation after you have used a product for 24 to 48 hours, go back to using the first product for 24 to 48 hours. If you have questions or have a reaction that does not get better or stop improving, talk to your doctor. Do not apply any retin-A creams if you have dark skin. If skin irritation does not return within 12 to 24 hours, consult your doctor. Apply Retin-A as directed on the label to the affected skin area after using topical products and continuing on for 24 hours. For further information, contact your doctor What is the most important information I should know about Retin-A? Do not apply Retin-A creams to the skin of children under the age of 16. If skin irritation does not return within 12 to 24 hours, consult your doctor. Use Retin-A as directed on the label. Keep away from direct sunlight. Use it with other medications, sunscreen, and skin care products that are also used for acne prevention, as well as over-the-counter sunscreens and sunscreens containing zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, or zinc sulfate. (Do not use Retin-A on the skin of Similar articles: https://www.breakingxbread.com/forum/fashion-forum/d-bal-dianabol-side-effects-d-bal-before-and-after https://www.carboncoreclothing.com/forum/fashion-forum/bulking-getting-a-belly-how-to-bulk-up-and-lose-stomach-fat https://es.drchealth.org/forum/welcome-to-the-forum/sustanon-250-dopo-quanto-fa-effetto-what-does-sarm-mean https://www.isyslimited.com/forum/general-discussions/trenbolone-8-week-cycle-test-prop-tren-ace-bulking-cycle 0 komentářů 0 0 Игровые автоматы гном 5000 3h Trenbolone opinie, trenbolone enanthate opinie General Discussion 👉 Trenbolone opinie, trenbolone enanthate opinie - Buy legal anabolic steroids Trenbolone opinie Trenbolone (Injectable) Trenbolone is arguably the most powerful steroid available to bodybuilders, causing rapid changes in body composition that take place within the first week of use. Most users will be seen with their abs in an extreme way for the first few days of use. This can result in extremely noticeable muscle loss over the course of two weeks of use, ligandrol pros and cons. However, this rapid growth and rapid loss of mass occurs over a short time-frame. However these rapid changes become permanent, steroids uk oral. Trenbolone should not be combined with other steroids as it is a highly steroid/compound, so it can be dangerous to take these with other drugs such as Anavar or other steroids, deca durabolin meditech. Once Trenbolone has started taking effect, it's likely you'll notice the following effects for the first several days: Muscle Loss (in most cases, this is due to muscle wasting) Fatigue (for most athletes, this will include severe fatigue, and it's likely that you'll get pretty much every imaginable symptom of an overstressed or tired adrenal system over the course of a few days) Fluid Changes (especially with Anavar users, when we've seen this effect on the bodybuilders as well) Athletes will notice an increase in pain and tiredness Muscle Tendon and Bone Loss The following changes with the body are often seen in the first weeks of use: Muscle tissue thinning, especially over the arms and legs Bone thinning Fractures are common among Trenbolone users When to Use Other Steroids Many bodybuilders feel that Anavar and other anabolic androgenic steroids are better off as separate substances than as parts of a steroid stack. However most use both the anabolic androgenic steroids for their gains when they want to, as one is often an option that works for each bodybuilder in particular, trenbolone opinie. In particular with Anavar, there is a great deal of variety and versatility in many steroid stacks, so it is important to be aware of when it's appropriate to use certain steroids for a particular body part. Stacks that use Anavar, in particular: Stacks that use Anavar together with other steroids: Stacks that use Anavar together with other steroids which have a strong anabolic effect: Conclusion As with anything with as many as possible to choose from, choosing a steroid isn't as easy as it may seem. Trenbolone enanthate opinie Trenbolone acetate vs Trenbolone Enanthate would be the same thing as comparing testosterone prop (a short ester) to testosterone enanthate (a longer acting ester)on acne. Both would have a similar effect on skin (not only testosterone prop, but also Trenbolone Enanthate). In the real world, Trenbolone Enanthate does not have nearly the same potency on acne as it does on testosterone prop (at least not within the US), enanthate trenbolone opinie. Now let's discuss how a Trenbolone Enanthate would affect skin, best steroid cycle for beginners 2022. Remember, the Trenbolone Enanthate would not be absorbed through your skin and thus would not have as similar an effect on acne as it does on testosterone pro, uk injectable steroids. Now imagine that I am using a Trenbolone Enanthate in my testosterone prop formulation. I would then be assuming that my Trenbolone Enanthate would not affect how much testosterone prop I was producing. By definition, Trenbolone Enanthate does not interfere with that production, anabol for you. It has no effect on the production of any of that substance, dexamethasone injection steroid. It does not alter the pH of it in any way. No, if you want to make any claim about how much Trenbolone Enanthate you could possibly be producing, it is already very clear that Trenbolone Enanthate just doesn't have much of a significant enough effect to influence acne, steroid drugs definition. To further reinforce whether your Trenbolone Enanthate would have an influence on your acne when you are taking a Trenbolone Enanthate, consider what might happen if I started with my Trenbolone Enanthate on the low end of the dose range that I was given my Trenbolone Enanthate. What if I started with my Trenbolone Enanthate at the highest dose, trenbolone enanthate opinie. What if I were actually taking my Trenbolone Enanthate on the low end of the dose range and was only given a very small amount to start with. What if I was simply starting off at a very small Trenbolone Enanthate dose and not changing it until the point at which I felt my acne was really bothering me? What if I started at a very high dose and then started off at very small doses and then continued at very large doses while tweaking the dose with my skin, turinabol vs dianabol? If this were to happen, would I actually feel my acne was worse or not and if so, if would it be the cause of that difference, best steroid cycle for beginners 2022? Say goodbye to use of dangerous anabolic steroids and say hello to the new legal natural steroids that mimic the effects of the steroids minus the side effects. There are now a number of these natural synthetic steroids now on the market. With a number of companies making these synthetic steroids in varying amounts, the best way to identify the difference between the natural and artificial versions is to look for differences in the amount that is in the mix. There has been a lot of research published which shows that those who begin taking synthetic steroids as prescribed by their doctors will often experience side effects similar to those that have been listed as side effects of steroids that had been prescribed to them. These side effects include: Cognitive dysfunction (memory loss, confusion, depression, confusion) Diabetes mellitus Depression Anxiety/anxiety disorders Athletes who take synthetic steroids often begin to experience side effects that are consistent with the types of side effects that have come up at the onset of steroid use and have been reported by the medical community as side effects associated with long-term use of steroids. They sometimes are called "acute" side effects and they can arise without warning of that fact. As with all side effects, there is a range of these adverse reactions that can be experienced that may include, but are not limited to: Increased heart rate and blood pressure Chest pain Anxiety Headache/stiffness Muscle pain Fatigue Muscle pain and cramping Blurred vision Nausea Stomach cramps Lethargy Mood disturbances Nasal congestion Vomiting Muscle twitches Stomach pain Heart palpitations Rash Skin rash or boils A serious side effect that can be experienced in those who start taking synthetic steroids is a rise in blood pressure in the same vein as the rise that has been reported with natural steroids. That is also a fairly common side effect of many steroid drugs, though it is rare in the context of taking synthetic steroids because natural steroids do not rise as rapidly as synthetic ones and the effects of synthetic steroids will begin to wear off as quickly as with natural steroids. This is one reason that a good initial look at a person's body chemistry may be all it takes to spot the difference between the natural steroids and synthetic steroids when taking them. One thing you should know about the new synthetic steroid is that most of these new synthetic steroids are being made by a company called SABIC in conjunction with Pfizer. Related Article: https://www.mykandyfactorybrand.com/forum/general-discussions/order-steroids-australia-australian-domestic-steroid-suppliers https://www.activistcareproject.com/forum/community-forum/top-cutting-steroid-cycles-clomid-success-rates-age-42 https://www.dancedistrictbynanalou.com/forum/stages-dance-district/testo-gold-landerlan-letrozole-goodrx https://ru.threehorseclub.com/forum/general-discussions/do-anabolic-steroids-work-for-everyone-benefits-of-steroids 0 komentářů 0 0 Игровые автоматы гном 5000 3h Trenorol supplement, trenorol price General Discussion 👉 Trenorol supplement, trenorol price - Buy steroids online Trenorol supplement Trenorol is the best type of legal supplement to burn fats even with the combination of Clenbutrol (another type of legal steroid)and Trenorol. If you want to give a small amount of Clenbutrol per day, use about half of one tablespoon of Trenorol for 4 hours, do hgh pills really work. If you are on a ketogenic diet, you will be using Clenbutrol for a longer period (2 weeks), as you need the amino acid glutamine for fuel, trenorol supplement. If you are not on a ketogenic diet, then you will need to take more of it to burn fat, winsol st 2220. You should not use Trenorol for more than 6 months before attempting a ketogenic diet to burn fat. Trenorol's Ketogenic Burn Trenorol burns fat like a ketogenic or low carb diet by increasing a person's protein level to help burn fat. A ketogenic diet, while it may look strange, will burn fat, but in the process, it may also decrease your carb intake and increase your protein intake. How to Burn Fat With Trenorol The Trenorol Burn Diet gives you the best results with Clenbutrol by increasing your protein intake. You should use Clenbutrol 3 or 4 times per week. A person can easily burn around 200-300 calories per day on a Trenorol Burn diet, supplement trenorol. You can also use Trenorol 3 times per week and lose up to 200 calories per day. Use a Trenorol Burn Diet until you do not see any negative side effects or have a burning fat problem, testo max vs nugenix. If you still have keto, you can also use Trenorol with your normal diet and increase your protein intake. Using Trenorol on a ketogenic diet without a ketogenic diet will increase the number of carbs in your diet. If you want to use Trenorol with Trenorol Burn, then you must take Trenorol with your normal diet, increasing your carbs. If you are on a diet where your carbs are very high, then you will still have to add Clenbutrol to keep your muscle from becoming glycogen debt ridden. If you want to save on carbs, then you can use the Trenorol Burn Diet as you are still consuming carbs with your normal diet, rather than being using carbs that can increase your body fat stores, somatropin overdose. How to Use Trenorol for Weight Loss Trenorol price TRENOROL (TRENBOLONE) TRENOROL is a Premium anabolic formula that launches substantial quantities of cost-free testosterone and increases nitrogen loyalty for major gains in muscle mass. Transepithelial NO synthase inhibitor (NOSA2) androgen receptor modulator (AR), both highly active in the growth-hormone pathway, enhance the actions of these steroids. These features of TRENOROL, especially in combination with the more potent androgen receptor substrate AR, make TRENOROL suitable as an effective addition to a high-intensity workout regimen for the long-term, stanozolol nedir ne işe yarar. TRENOROL is well-tolerated by most individuals and is widely available in combination products, illegal clenbuterol for sale. It is also available in the form of capsule or liquid preparations, trenorol price. Transepithelial P-Glycoprotein-1 (P-Glycoprotein-1) is a novel, competitive and selective transepithelial NOSAs in which a glycoprotein-1, P-glycoprotein, is encoded by the protein and is expressed at high density in muscle, cartilage, cartilage fibroblasts and adipose tissue. As such, P-Glycoprotein-1 contributes to the recruitment and proliferation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from the bloodstream to the muscle cells of the leg. It has been shown to promote the increase of blood flow over the entire range of the range of blood flow across the leg, which enhances muscle contractile properties, steroids moon face. In addition, it appears to enhance the binding of muscle and tendon fibroblasts to muscle and tendon, thereby increasing the expression of fibroblasts in muscle and tendon, trenorol price. This may result in an increase of protein turnover and an enhanced resistance to the degenerative effects of muscle damage caused by exercise. TRENOROL is metabolized by the liver so that only the steroid (androgen) is present in the blood. TRENOROL (TRENBOLONE) is a Premium anabolic formula that launches substantial quantities of cost-free testosterone and increases nitrogen loyalty, newulife hgh gel for sale. It increases the nitrogen loyalty of the blood and muscle tissue of both adults and children in anabolic androgenic, growth hormone-releasing activity. If you want to rapidly accelerate your bulking and maximize your muscle growth then the Crazy Bulk Bulking Stack is a great choice. It's the perfect mix of lean mass and muscle mass. We're going to include: 2 - 7 day meals 5 - 16 oz weight packs 2 x 3 day bulking routines These bulking routines should have at least 5-10 reps and 30-60 lbs per workout Each workout should include at least 3 exercises a workout per day and/or a high volume of low rep sets. This way, you're building up your strength and power before you reach your goal weight. If you do the workout for a total of 3 days, keep track of each workout. Then take a note of your best weights and reps during the 3 days. You'll see how much weight is added and how much strength and power you gain. After 3 weeks of training to the size of your desired physique, you will have plenty of momentum and it's time for an increase in dieting. Here's a sample workout schedule: 1 Day - 7 days on, 1 day off 7-10 x 5 sets of 3 reps 3-4 times per week 2 Days - Week 1-3 10-15 x 5 sets of 3 reps (rest 3-4 minutes between sets) 3-4 times per week 2 Days - Week 4-8 12-14 x 5 sets of 3 reps 3-4 times per week This schedule is flexible and you can do a week of bodyweight, strength and cardio. We recommend a low volume program of between 12-14 sets, and between 3-4 times per week. However, this program is designed for a complete beginner like you. Remember: only follow this program 1 time. The workout is a combination of 2 of the workouts above. You'll be performing every workout of the 2 bodyweight routines, except for the last 2 days. Crazy Bulk Bulking Stack #1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Monday 15 8 8 8 8 15/8 8 8 45/8 1 1 1 1 1 15 8 15 12 7 12 12 1 1 1 1 135/8 135/8 135/ Similar articles: https://www.dumlaoimmigrationlawadvice.com/forum/business-forum/bulking-keto-diet-supplement-stack-build-muscle https://www.limitededitionsonly.com/forum/fashion-forum/legal-steroids-for-muscle-growth-where-to-buy-muscle-growth-steroids https://www.e-english4kids.com/forum/tv-film-forum/sustanon-250-was-ist-das-sustanon-wirkungseintritt https://www.myoutdoorservicesltd.com/forum/testimonials/winsol-crazybulk-como-tomar-crazy-bulk-peru 0 komentářů 0 0 Forum - Frameless

  • Long exposure landscape photography | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Long exposure landscape photography I will discuss the practical aspects of long exposure landscape photography later, but first, we need to consider other key factors in getting quality long exposure photographs. Location is the key The first step in creating stunning long exposure images is choosing the correct landscape, one that is conducive to this kind of photography. Long exposures are ideal for conveying movement, but it can also be used to blur unwanted movement, removing the ripples or waves on a lake or sea scene can give a surreal feel. While showing a river, a waterfall, waves crashing onto a beach, or stormy passing clouds can depict movement and drama. Once a location has been identified, consider the time of day. The golden hour is undoubtedly the best time, and it happens twice a day. The golden hour is the short window of time right after sunrise and again right before sunset, when the air is filled with a flattering golden hue that is perfect for photographing everything from landscapes to portraits. During this time, the sun is low in the sky and more diffuse (and redder) than normal thanks to being filtered for a greater distance through the atmosphere. At golden hour, you will not find the harsh shadows seen at high noon. Because the sun is so low on the horizon, the light is directional, creating long, and soft shadows giving dimension to photographs. That soft dimensional light can be used to achieve creative effects that are not possible at other times of the day. So, when does the golden hour occur? It varies depending on the location, the time of year, and weather conditions. Apps, like PlanIt, can help determine sunrise, sunset times, the direction of the sunrise and sunset, and the optimum golden hour times. A general rule of thumb is that the golden hour is about an hour after sunrise and an hour before sunset. Subject matter Consider ways that can be incorporated into the frame, like static objects, a boulder or two, a tree, jetty, or island in a lake, icebergs, or a wreck on a beach. Walkabout looking for interesting subjects that might provide a focal point. Shoot in RAW ​RAW is a file format like jpeg, but unlike jpeg, it captures all the image data recorded by the camera’s sensor rather than compressing it. Shooting in RAW provides higher quality images but also allows for more control in post-processing. For instance, correcting underexposure problems or adjusting aspects like colour temperature, white balance, or contrast. ​However, one negative aspect of shooting in RAW is that the files take up more space, so I advise using larger SD or Micro SD Cards. Furthermore, RAW photos need some sort of post-processing, so photo editing software is essential. Set the cameras White Balance If the camera is set to Auto White Balance, it will compensate for all the beautiful warm tones you are there specifically for. Auto White Balance makes images bluer than required for the golden hour. In RAW, it is easy to adjust the white balance in post, nevertheless, it is still a good idea to manually set the white balance to get a better idea of what the scene is meant to look like. For beginners, a good initial point for beginners is setting it to shade or cloudy to help get the required golden hues. Aperture Priority mode Aperture Priority mode allows you to choose your aperture and the camera will automatically determine the best shutter speed. Set the ISO of the camera to 100 or lower if possible and let the camera decide the shutter speed. ISO determines the sensitivity of the camera sensor to light, so using the lowest value means that the sensor is minimally sensitive. Additionally, using the lowest ISO can minimize digital noise or grain in the shot. The less noise, the higher the image quality will be. Of course, a sturdy tripod is essential, and an external shutter release device or set the camera to a 2 or 5-second shutter delay to prevent camera shake. Post-processing Shooting in RAW will undoubtedly require some post-processing to enhance the look and feel of any long exposure landscape image. First consider increasing the blue primary in Lightroom or Photoshop as this will increase the vibrance of any rocks, boulders, tree trunks, etc. Then, think about enhancing colours by boosting saturation or vibrancy. Adjust the levels and curves to create an image with a more robust dynamic range. If you find areas of the shot are too bright or too dark, try your hand at dodging and burning to create a more well-exposed image throughout. ​ However, post-processing is all about personal preference and one’s own creative perspective on photography as it is to compose the shot taken on location. Always make small adjustments that you feel are necessary to create the image desired and keep the master copy unaltered and safe.

  • Computing | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Výpočetní Naučil jsem se používat počítače brzy, nyní mám Ph.D. Ve výpočetní technice, programování softwaru, opravě hardwaru, designu webových stránek a pracoval pro významného vývojáře softwaru a jako vedoucí počítačový inženýr. Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Mám několik strojů, většinou používaných pro: Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Softwarový design Programování Psaní e-learningových programů Moje romány webový design Úpravy fotografií a videa Sociální média Mým prvním počítačem bylo ZX Spectrum; byl to 8bitový osobní domácí počítač vydaný ve Velké Británii v roce 1982 společností Sinclair Research. Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Počítač Spectrum obíhal v osmi různých modelech, které se lišily od základní úrovně s 16 KB RAM, až po ZX Spectrum +3 se 128 KB RAM s vestavěnou disketovou jednotkou. Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Dalšími prvními domácími počítači zaměřenými na běžné publikum ve Velké Británii byly: Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Commodore 64 Drak 32 BBC Micro Amstrad CPC Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Pomocí výše uvedených systémů jsem se naučil programovat v různých počítačových jazycích. Zloženie: 100% bavlna. V roce 1991 jsem přešel na počítač s verzí Microsoft se systémem Windows 3.0. Bylo to vylepšení oproti předchozím systémům, na kterých jsem se naučil, ale Win 3.0 postrádal multimediální a síťové funkce, takže Win 3.0 byl rychle nahrazen Win 3.1 a jeho vzhledové vylepšení rozhraní bylo obrovské.

  • Python | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Výpočetní Python is an advanced programming language that is object-oriented, interpreted, and built on flexible and robust semantics. Why learn it? Python is easy to learn and lets programmers quickly integrate systems as scripting or glue language. It is also suited for Rapid Application Development, such as: Writing games for their inner logic, comprising Artificial Intelligence factors. NASA uses Python as a standard scripting language in its Integrated Planning System. Its Features are: Easy to learn and read. Associated web structures for developing internet-based applications. Has a free interpreter and standard library accessible in source or binary on major platforms. Who uses it: Python developers, software engineers, back end developers, Python programmers Used by employers in information technology, engineering, professional services, and design.

  • RAID 5-10 | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Raid 5 to 10 RAID 5, 6 and 10 RAID 5 is block-level striping with distributed parity that allocates parity with the data and needs all the HDDs but one to be present to operate. In this configuration, the array is not destroyed by a single drive failure. When an HDD fails any successive reads can be calculated from the distributed parity, so, the HDD failure is masked from the end-user. RAID 5 requires at least three disks and is often and is reliable a good system to use because if an HDD fails your data is safe on the other HDDs. ​ Also, if you replace the failed HDD with a new HDD it will automatically take over the function of the failed HDD. RAID 6 is block-level striping with double distributed parity that provides fault tolerance up to two failed HDDs. This makes larger RAID groups more practical, particularly for high-end systems. These days this is increasingly significant as large capacity HDDs prolong the time needed to recover from a single HDD failure. ​ Similar to RAID 5 , a single HDD failure results in reduced performance of the total array until the failed HDD has been replaced and the data has been rebuilt. RAID 10 , sometimes mentioned as RAID 1+0 mirroring and striping occurs. Data is written in stripes across primary disks that have been mirrored to the secondary disks. ​ This is the best RAID system, one I have used for a long time.

  • Photography | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Photography Photography has always been a large part of my life. My first camera (when I was about seven years old) was a Kodak Brownie 127, a plastic box camera for eight 4x6 cm pictures on 127 film, a paper-backed roll film format. Then, I only shot black and white film. Through the years my cameras became more complex and expensive. But it was not until I signed up to a local photography course that I really appreciated the additional advantages of processing one’s own film and quickly built a darkroom and purchased the equipment required. This opened a whole new world of darkroom highlighting, shading, Solarization (the process of re-exposing photographic paper during the development process), and playing with chemicals to get certain effects. Nowadays, this can be done using digital software, but the experience is not the same as experimenting yourself. Whether you use a conventional film camera or have just purchased your first DSLR and want to learn the basics or are looking for simple ways to update your existing photography skills, the following tips might help build a strong foundation. However, photography is an art, so the learning never stops. So, what is Photography? ​ Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light electronically using a digital sensor, or chemically using light-sensitive materials and chemicals, like photographic film. It is used in numerous fields of science, manufacturing, and business, and has more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication. Some cameras can also capture wavelengths of light invisible to the human eye, including UV, infrared, and radio. Having been a senior Shotokan karate instructor I quickly learned that to keep improving the best way is to practice often using varied techniques, make mistakes and be open to learning from others. Essential photography tips ​ 1. Hold your camera correctly - Sounds obvious, doesn’t it, but many photographers do not hold their camera correctly, which can cause camera shake that produces blurry images. Tripods are the best way to reduce camera shake, but in truth, how many people carry a tripod, unless they are shooting in low light situations or have learned the hard way? If not using a tripod it is important to hold the camera correctly to help to reduce unnecessary movement. ​ Most people will sooner or later develop their own way of holding the camera, but it should always be held with both hands. Grip the right side of the camera with your right hand and place your left hand beneath the lens to support the weight of the camera. ​ Also, the closer you keep the camera to your body, the more stable it will become, so keep it close to the body mass. Additional stability can be achieved by leaning up against a wall or crouch down on your knees, but if there is nothing to lean on, try adopting a wider stance. 2. Composition - understand the rule of thirds, fifths, or sixes Old artists deeply understood the composition rules. Most older photography books discuss the thirds, which is based on the idea that pictures are generally more interesting and well balanced when they are not centred. Imagining a grid placed over your images with two vertical lines and two horizontal lines that divide the picture into nine equal sections. ​ Rule of thirds is a photography guideline, dissecting the image into 9 parts, with two evenly spaced horizontal lines. ​ So, following the rule of thirds, rather than positioning your subject or the important elements of a scene at the centre of the photo, place them along one of the four lines, or at the points where the lines intersect. Many cameras even have a grid option you can turn on, which can be useful when composing images. ​ However, rules are made to be broken. Photography is about creativity and personal expression, so sometimes choose to break this rule and place the points of interest elsewhere in the photo. This is fine, but before breaking these rules, it is important to understand them and are in the habit of consciously thinking about composition, the points of interest, and where to place them. ​ These days, professionals, artists, illustrators, or photographers often use the rule of fifths or sixes for composition. Looking at the Dutch and Flemish painters of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries who used fifths or sixes rules for grand naturalistic landscape and seascapes composition, to empathise dramatic a sky or ocean. 3. Eyes must always be in focus ​ When shooting portraits, the focusing area is small, so it is more important to get the image sharp. The eyes are an important facial feature, and they are often the first thing people look at, especially when it comes to close-ups photography and headshots. ​ So, the subject’s eyes should be the main point of focus. To get both eyes sharp, choose a single focus point and aim it at one of the eyes. Once the first eye is in focus, keep the shutter button pressed halfway down and move the camera to recompose the photo and include the second eye. 4. Consider the background ​ Normally, the background ought to be simple and as clutter-free as possible, so it does not pull the viewer’s attention from the main subject of the photograph. Muted colours and plain patterns often work well, no one wants viewers in being more interested in the colourful building or church tower in the background than your main subject unless a photographer wants to make a statement. ​ Fixing a distracting background can be as simple as moving the subject matter or changing an angle, but if that does not work, try to obscure it by using a wider aperture and getting in as close to the subject as possible. Whenever possible, keep the background neutral, especially if placing the subject off to one side of the photograph making the background more visible. 5. Play with perspective ​ The best way to up creativity levels is to experiment with perspective. Any scene will look remarkably changed when approached from a different angle, while, capturing your subject from above or below can change the feel of a photograph. ​ Of course, changing angles may not work for every photograph, but unless considered or tried how do you know what works. Experimentation is the key factor to help improve your photography. Make mistakes, try new things, and think out-of-the-box. When shooting small objects, animals, or children, get down to their level and view the world through their eyes. If shooting a portrait, consider standing on a bench and shoot your subject from above, or, have them stand on a bench and shoot up. 6. Shoot in RAW ​ RAW is a file format like jpeg, but unlike jpeg, it captures all the image data recorded by the camera’s sensor rather than compressing it. Shooting in RAW provides higher quality images but also allows for more control in post-processing. For instance, correcting underexposure problems or adjusting aspects like colour temperature, white balance, or contrast. ​ However, one negative aspect of shooting in RAW is that the files take up more space, so I advise using larger SD or Micro SD Cards. Furthermore, RAW photos need some sort of post-processing, so photo editing software is essential. 7. Understand the exposure triangle ​ While it can seem intimidating at first, the exposure triangle simply refers to the three most important elements of exposure, ISO, aperture, and shutter speed. When shooting in manual mode all three of these things need to be balanced to get sharp, well-lit photos. ​ ISO - controls the camera’s sensitivity to light. A low ISO setting means the camera will be less sensitive to light, while a higher ISO means it will be more sensitive to light. Conversely, the quality of the image will decrease as the ISO increases and you may see 'noise (grain)' on the image with a higher ISO. So, an ISO setting of 100 to 200 is usually ideal when shooting outdoors during the day, but when shooting in low light situations, such as indoors or at night, using a higher ISO of 400 to 800 or higher may be necessary. ​ Aperture - is the opening in your lens, it controls how much light gets through to the camera’s sensor as well as the depth of field. Depth of field refers to the area surrounding the focal point of the image which remains sharp. A wider aperture (indicated by a lower f-number) lets more light through, but it has a narrow depth of field. While a narrow aperture (indicated by a higher f-number) lets less light through but has a wider depth of field. A wide aperture is terrific when you want to isolate your subject, but when you want the whole scene to be in focus, such as with group shots, a narrow aperture is required. ​ Shutter speed - controls how long the shutter stays open when you take a picture. The longer the shutter stays open, the more light gets through to the camera’s sensor. A fast shutter speed is great for freezing action like a horse jumping a fence, while a longer shutter speed will blur motion. Long shutter speeds can give interesting effects, like flowing river water over rocks but require a tripod. 8. Use a narrow aperture for landscapes ​ Landscape photographs entail an atypical approach because everything in the foreground to the mountains in the background should be sharply in focus. So, when shooting a scene where everything needs to be fully in focus, select a narrow aperture rather than a wide one. ​ A larger f/ number means a narrower aperture, so aim towards f/22 or higher, depending on what the lens allows. Using Aperture Priority Mode (Av or A) will allow experimentation with different apertures without having to worry about adjusting the shutter speed each time. 9. Experiment using Aperture Priority and Shutter Priority Mode ​ Only using automatic mode will limit anyone’s photographic potential, so, experiment using Aperture Priority Mode (A or Av) and Shutter Priority Mode (S or Tv), as they are two valuable options that are available on most cameras. ​ Aperture Priority Mode allows the selection of the aperture and then the camera adjusts the shutter speed accordingly. So, when shooting an object and want to blur the background, select a wide aperture, and let the camera decide the shutter speed. ​ While, Shutter Priority Mode, allows the selection of the shutter speed, and the camera will select the correct aperture. So, for a crisp shot of a racing car speeding past, select a fast shutter speed (a high number, 2000 or higher) and let the camera choose the aperture. 10. Raise the ISO ​ Many photographers try to elude shooting in high ISO as it will lead to grainy-looking photos or ‘noise’. But, while using a higher ISO can lead to lower image quality, grain in some photographs can be beneficial. ​ If the shutter speed cannot be lowered due to motion blur, and a tripod is not an option, it is better to obtain a sharp photo with some noise than no photo at all, anyway, much of the noise can be removed during the post-processing. ​ Furthermore, camera technology has improved so much in recent years, so it is possible to produce great photographs with ISOs of 1600, 3200, 6400, or higher. ​ Either way, using a wider aperture can help to minimise noise when shooting at higher ISOs, and slightly overexposing your image can also help, as making light areas darker in post-processing will not increase noise, whereas making dark areas lighter will. ​ Bearing that in mind, always check the camera's settings before going on a shoot. Discovering that the whole shoot was shot at an ISO 1000 on a bright sunny day can be exasperating, especially if the photos were taken to document a special occasion or other events that cannot be recreated. ​ It is an easy mistake to make (Yes, I learned the hard way), so, to avoid unpleasant surprises, make a habit of checking and resetting your ISO settings before shooting anything. 11. Learn to use the white balance ​ White balance can help you capture colours more accurately. Different types of light have different characteristics, so not adjust the camera's white balance will result in the colours in your photography taking on a marginally blue, orange, or green hue or ‘temperature’. ​ Of course, white balance can be fixed in post-processing, but it can become tedious if you have hundreds of photographs that require small adjustments. Some of the standard white balance settings on a camera include Automatic White Balance, Daylight, Cloudy, Flash, Shade, Fluorescent, and Tungsten. ​ Each is symbolised by a different icon, so check the camera’s manual. Automatic white balance works okay in many situations, but it is best to change the setting according to the type of light shooting in. ​ When shooting indoors I use daylight bulbs for photography and videos, actually, all the bulbs in the house are daylight rated. 12. Flash can be overused or not adequate ​ Built-in camera flash at night or in low light can lead to some unpleasant effects, such as red eyes or harsh shadows. Generally, it is more advisable to better to increase the ISO and get noisier photos than to use the on-camera flash and risk ruining the shot altogether. ​ However, occasionally there may not be enough light, and if you do not have off-camera lighting, there is no other choice but to use the built-in flash. If in this situation there are a couple of things that can be done. First, find the flash settings in the camera’s menu, then reduce the brightness as much as possible. ​ Secondly, use a diffuser, parchment paper is a good option, secure it with tape. Or bounce the light off the ceiling by holding a reflector or white cardboard in front of it at an angle. ​ Nearly all hot-shoe flashguns come with diffusers. 13. Invest in a tripod or two ​ To get sharp photos in low light without raising the ISO, a tripod is an essential accessory. It also allows experimentation with long exposure photography, when the shutter is open for seconds or minutes at a time, this can produce amazing effects when photographing like the sea, rivers, or waterfalls. ​ However, when purchasing a tripod , there are several things to consider, such as weight, stability, height, and flexibility. ​ Weight is important because carrying a heavy tripod around is not fun, but it also needs to be stable enough to support the camera and the lenses. Tripod buying guide . 14. Be selective ​ An important factor to realise is that every photographer, no matter how experienced or talented, will get mediocre shots. However, the reason their portfolios are impressive is that they only display their best work; they do not bore you with the twenty other photos depicting a virtually identical scene. ​ So, if you want your work to stand out on Facebook, Instagram, website, or photo-sharing sites like Flickr or 500px, narrow it down to a couple of extremely good photos from each shoot. By showing the mediocre shots you obscure the three or four great shots obtained. 15. Learn by mistakes ​ Getting overexposed, blurry, grainy, or badly composed photos may be frustrating, but use them as a learning tool, analyse them, what did you do wrong, what do you do right. Keep notes of each shot and the associated factors, like lighting, flash or no flash, handheld or tripod, strong winds with an insubstantial tripod. ​ Most of the time there will be a simple solution such as changing the composition or using a faster shutter speed or changing the aperture. 16. Invest in decent photo editing software ​ This brings us back to shooting in RAW: When shooting in RAW, post-processing will become essential rather than an afterthought, so invest in some photo editing software that will allow basic editing tasks such as, cropping, adjusting exposure, altering white balance and contrast, and removing blemishes. ​ Most professional photographers use programs like Adobe Photoshop or Lightroom, but less pricey options are Photoshop Elements, Picasa, Paint Shop Pro or GIMP (Gimp is a free powerful open-source software). 17. learn to shoot sunrise or sunset ​ Lighting can make or break a photo, and the early morning and evening are widely thought to be the best times of day for taking photos. In photography, the hour just after the sun rises or before it sets is called the ‘golden hour’, because the sun is lower in the sky and the light is softer and warmer. ​ Whether shooting landscapes, portraits, or still life, using the early morning or evening light can give photos a serene feel with its warm glow and the long shadows it casts. 18. Bracketing ​ One of the most useful techniques in photography is called bracketing , in other words, taking multiple photos of the same subject with different camera settings. Normally, bracketing is about changing your exposure: one photo at the meter’s recommendation, plus one under and one over. But exposure is not the only variable at play here. Why Bracket Photos? ​ Bracketing means you capture a sequence of photos while changing your camera settings from shot to shot. This means you end up with two or more photos of the same scene, with only a couple of differences in each shot. ​ Exposure bracketing is the most common kind of bracketing in photography, will usually ending up with one photo that is too dark, one that is too bright, and one with a correct exposure. But bracketing the focus distance will resulting in one photo that is front-focused, another that is back-focused, and one that is accurate. ​ Some people consider bracketing takes up memory and wastes time. Especially if one knows what settings needed for an image, so, why bracket shots? There are two important reasons why bracketing is beneficial in photography.

  • Recovery Mode | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    System Recovery Mode Windows Recovery Mode - MS Windows 10/11 allows a recovery USB Drive to be generated. Manufacturers of pre-built desktops and laptops have their own recovery media embedded into the system, so pressing the F11 key may not work on all PCs as there is no one standard and many manufacturers use F9, F10, or F12 keys to enter recovery mode. ​ Press the Windows tab and type ‘Recovery Media’ then follow the instructions. Create a bootable USB drive using the Command Line (CMD). ​ When needed insert ‘Recovery USB drive’, and then restart your computer and press F11 before the MS Windows logo appears. ​ However, true recovery will put the computer back to its factory state and you will lose data and some programs. If you want to revert and completely clean the computer this option may be appropriate. I also use the ‘system Image’ option as this will back up the data and programs installed. ​ Various options for recovery. ​ Enter Recovery Mode using the Start Menu option: ​ The Start menu’s Restart option provides one of the most reliable methods for entering recovery mode. Click the Start button in Windows 10/11. Then click the Power button. Press and hold the Shift key. Then click Restart while holding the Shift key. After that, select Troubleshoot and Advanced options on the blue menu. ​ Enter Recovery Mode with a bootable USB drive: ​ Users can enter recovery mode with a bootable USB drive that they can install (or reinstall) Windows 10 with. First, users will need to set up the bootable USB drive with the Windows Recovery option or Image file. Users will also need to configure their PCs to boot from USB drives first by adjusting the BIOS or UEFI settings. Thereafter, insert a bootable USB drive into a PC’s USB slot. Turn the laptop or desktop on. Then a Windows Setup window will appear if the PC is configured to boot from USB drives. Click Next on the Windows setup window. Select the Repair your computer option. Then select Troubleshoot and click on Advanced Options to enter the Advanced Start-up Options menu. ​ Select the Restart now option: ​ Users can also get to Advanced Start-up Options by clicking the Restart now an option in Settings. Click the Type here to search button on Windows 10’s taskbar. Enter the keyword recover in the search box to find the Recovery option. Click Recovery to open the window shown directly below. Click the Restart now button under Advanced start-up. The PC will restart to the Choose an option menu from which users can select Troubleshoot and then Advanced options. ​ Enter Recovery Mode using Command Prompt. ​ The Command Prompt provides another way to access recovery mode. Type cmd in Windows Search and click on Run as an administrator to start Command Prompt. Input the following command and press Enter: shutdown /r /o Click Close on the You are about to be signed out a prompt that appears. Thereafter, select Troubleshoot and Advanced options after the restart. ​ So, there are few ways users can enter Windows 10’s recovery mode. When users enter the recovery mode, they can then utilise the System Restore, Command Prompt, System Image Recovery, and Start-up Repair utilities. Create a bootable USB flash drive using CMD. ​ Insert a USB flash drive into a running computer. Open a Command Prompt (CMD) window as an administrator. Type diskpart . In the new command line window that opens, to determine the USB flash drive number or drive letter, at the command prompt, type list disk , and then click ENTER . The list disk command displays all the disks on the computer. Note the drive number or drive letter of the USB flash drive. At the command prompt, type select disk , where X is the drive number or drive letter of the USB flash drive, and then click ENTER . Type clean , and click ENTER . This command deletes all data from the USB flash drive. To create a new primary partition on the USB flash drive, type create partition primary and then click ENTER . To select the partition that you just created, type select partition 1 , and then click ENTER. To format the partition, type f ormat fs=ntfs quick, and then click ENTER .

  • Cornwall | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Cornwall Out of gallery

  • CMD | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    CMD - Command Promt Before Windows was created, the most usual operating system that ran on computers was DOS (Disk Operating System). ​ I can remember learning how to use DOS and still use it on a regular basis. ​ Over time, newer versions of Windows were developed, and DOS was finally phased out with Windows ME. However, even with Windows 7, 8, 10, and 11, the CMD (Command Line) in DOS (disk operating system) system still runs in the background, and a command line or command prompt window can still be opened. It has a similar appearance to DOS and can be a useful tool when diagnosing problems. ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ The command prompt/line is also used in Linux operating systems and many seasoned computer users use the command line as much as the graphical user interface. ​ Whether you are using MS Windows, macOS or Linux, there is a Shell, (Shell is a computer program that presents a command-line interface that allows you to control your computer using commands entered with a keyboard instead of controlling graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with a mouse/keyboard combination), Console window or the likes lurking in the background. Windows and Linux use different commands to access and use these Shells, so if you use both you will need to learn two types of command language. Using the Command Prompt or Dos Window ​ When people refer to the command prompt, they may refer to it in different ways. Some call it: ​ A Shell Console Window Command Prompt Cmd Prompt Terminal Command Line DOS ​ To find and open an MS-DOS prompt or Windows command line for the various Windows versions press the Window key and type CMD , this will highlight the Command Prompt , then click it to open the shell.

  • Landscape | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Landscape Photography Choosing lenses for landscape photography is the same as having numerous paintbrushes for a painter. Lenses allow photographers to transform how a location or subject is portrayed. Depending on the lens you can have, wide-angle views, tight close-ups, the capacity to isolate subjects, and the option to keep everything in a scene in or out of focus. Particularly regarding landscape photography, lenses are one of the few means with which you can really impart personal vision into an image. Apart from lens choice affecting how you portray a setting in nature, landscape photographers also should be concerned with the practicality of such lenses they choose to work with. Remember, less is more, carrying a large selection of lenses for landscape photography is counterproductive and apart from the weight factors having too many lenses can waste time and confuse people. I carry four: ​ Prime 25mm f1.7 lens Zoom 12-60mm f3.5-5.6 Prime 45mm f2.8 Zoom 45-200 f4.0-5.6 (rarely used, mainly to focus on a topic when I cannot get close enough) ​ Zoom lenses are great for difficult topics, like a tree in a lake when you cannot get close enough, but prime lenses make you move about the landscape to compose a subject. Prime lenses make you think more, move in, move out, or perhaps change an angle. Focal length When considering a lens for landscape photography, the most common advice often suggests buying a wide-angle lens. Wide-angle lenses are suitable for landscape photography because of their extensive field of view and far-seeing depth of field, both desirable attributes for landscape photography. Wide-angle lenses allow you to fit an entire mountain in the background, or lake in the foreground of the frame, they can also be used to show a great deal of land, sea, sky, or forest. The extra depth of field they provide helps to ensure consistent sharp focus from foreground to background, which can be beneficial when photographing large expanses. Considering wide-angle lenses are the alleged standard for landscape applications, this must not deter a photographer from considering a normal (50mm, similar to human depth-of-field) or telephoto focal length for photographing landscapes. Occasionally, using a telephoto lens can provide a little extra reach for visual compression, thereby, creating interest in an image. Zoom or prime? The debate between zoom and prime lenses will continue, and the discussion is particularly ironic in the sphere of landscape photography. The merit of zoom is the ability to zoom into a landscape or topic when restricted to a specific location. Conversely, zooms can increase complacency or laziness when photographing an area, whereas prime lenses will force a motivated photographer to hike more, move about the area, searching for a more rewarding viewpoint to photograph the landscape. ​ The image-quality differences between zoom and prime lenses are debatable, there are many high-quality zooms (at a cost), and there are high-quality prime lenses. Many wider focal length lenses are available in zoom format, like my zoom 12-60mm f3.5-5.6. It gives a little leeway in the composition, but it does not mean I will not walk about first to find the optimal spot for composition. It just helps to emphasize the tree in the lake, or a boulder with the evening glow of a sunset, rather than having it off in the distance. Of course, you will need a sturdy tripod, perhaps filters, or reflectors, so, their weight should be considered. ​ I use a Bergan that carries two camera bodies, four lenses, an external monitor, filters, spare batteries, a large steady tripod, and an extra-long quick-release rail plate with spirit levels. Deciding between zoom or prime lenses depends on your own needs, such as the distance or access to walk around a subject, how much weight, how many lenses to be carried, and personal preference for focal length. Links: Long exposure landscape photography

  • Diodes | Qâf ScaleModels Gozo

    Diodes Diody jsou polovodičové součástky, které fungují jako jednosměrný spínač proudu. Diody umožňují snadný tok proudu v jednom směru, ale výrazně brání proudu protékat v opačném směru. Diody mají polaritu určenou anodou (kladný vodič) a katodou (záporný vodič). Mnoho diod umožňuje protékat proud pouze tehdy, když je na anodu přivedeno kladné napětí. Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Jsou také známé jako usměrňovače, protože mění střídavý proud (AC) na pulzující stejnosměrný proud (DC). Diody jsou dimenzovány podle jejich typu, napětí a proudové kapacity. Diody jsou k dispozici v mnoha konfiguracích, například: Kovové pouzdro Montáž na čep Plastové pouzdro s páskem Plastové pouzdro se zkosením Skleněné pouzdro Diody jsou předpjaté, když umožňují tok proudu, když jsou předpjaté, neumožňují tok proudu a fungují jako izolátor. Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Symbol šipky schématu diodového schématu ukazuje proti směru toku elektronů. Napětí aplikované na anodu je kladné vzhledem ke katodě. Napětí v diodě je také vyšší než prahové napětí, takže funguje jako zkrat a umožňuje protékání proudu. Pokud je katoda pozitivní vzhledem k anodě, je dioda obrácená. Poté bude fungovat jako otevřený obvod; proto neprotéká žádný proud. K čemu se diody používají? Zloženie: 100% bavlna. Ochrana proti zpětnému proudu Blokovací diody se používají v některých elektronických obvodech k ochraně, jako je náhodný problém se zpětným připojením: Nesprávné připojení stejnosměrného napájení Reverzní polarity Protože tok proudu ve špatném směru může poškodit ostatní součásti obvodu. Jednoduchý regulátor napětí Regulátory napětí se používají ke snížení vstupního napětí na požadovanou úroveň a udrží jej stabilní i přes výkyvy v napájení. Mohou také regulovat výstupní napětí, Zenerovy diody se obvykle používají jako regulátor napětí, protože jsou navrženy tak, aby fungovaly ve stavu obráceného předpětí, ale také se chovají jako normální signální diody, když jsou v předpětí.

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